Mainly prescribed to those with severe sleep disorders such as narcolepsy or sleep apnea, modafinil is a central nervous system stimulant, or analeptic drug. It promotes wakefulness and intense focus in its users, but can also come with serious side effect that include Stevens-Johnson syndrome and TEN (Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis).



Originally found in 1976 by Michel Jouvet, a medical professor who associated himself with Cephalon, a pharmaceutical company, Modafinil promotes wakefulness and an enhanced concentration in its users, primarily to those with sleep disorders. Because of this, the substance has been used as a smart drug to enhance the mental performances of those who generally fail to get enough daily sleep. Modafinil increases the levels of compounds such as histamine (which is released by cells throughout the body to combat the effects of injuries and allergic reactions) to boost activity in the central nervous system. It then works to manipulate the body’s levels of orexin, a neuropeptide that assists in the arousal of wakefulness and concentration in the user, and dopamine, a neurotransmitter that sends signals to other nerve cells within the brain to promote action and motivation. However, any additional functions are unknown at this time. The drug has not been researched and tested enough to fully understand the wide scope of its operations and poential within the human body.

Side effects

Modafinil has a number of adverse side effects associated with its use, which include but are not limited to: headaches, nausea, Rhinitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose), diarrhea, rapid weight loss, insomnia, hypertension, and vomiting. More serious side effects, such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, a debilitating skin disorder that causes overwhelming mucous rashes and membranes throughout the body, and TEN (Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis) are also possible. TEN is a potentially life-threatening affliction that causes widespread necrosis in the cells of the skin. It is always recommended to consult a qualified physician not only on the eligibility of the drug, but also on any potential individual risks associated with consumption.


For on-label purposes, Modafinil is generally prescribed at amounts of 200 mg daily, although smaller doses of 100 mg daily can occasionally be advised. For off-label uses, it’s typical for users to adhere to the general prescription of 200 mg daily, however it is important to speak with a doctor concerning the appropriate levels of consumption in both examples.

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